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Rohaya Daud's Notes
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Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control

By Ku Ahmad Mudrikah Ku Mukhtar , Mohammad Hafizh Asyraf Ismail , Ahmad Farhan Ahmad Fuad, Afif Asyraf, Zaki Zakwan

There are three steps used to manage health and safety at work:

  1. Spot the Hazard (Hazard Identification)
  2. Assess the Risk (Risk Assessment)
  3. Make the Changes (Risk Control)

At work you can use these three ThinkSafe steps to help prevent accidents.

Using the ThinkSafe steps

1. Spot the Hazard

Key Point
A hazard is anything that could hurt you or someone else.

Examples of workplace hazards include:

  • frayed electrical cords (could result in electrical shock)
  • boxes stacked precariously (they could fall on someone)
  • noisy machinery (could result in damage to your hearing)

During work experience, you must remain alert to anything that may be dangerous. If you see, hear or smell anything odd, take note. If you think it could be a hazard, tell someone.

2. Assess the Risk

Key Point
Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be.

Whenever you spot a hazard, assess the risk by asking yourself two questions:

  • how likely is it that the hazard could harm me or someone else?
  • how badly could I or someone else be harmed?

Always tell someone (your employer, your supervisor or your health and safety representative) about hazards you can't fix yourself, especially if the hazard could cause serious harm to anyone.

For example:

  • ask your supervisor for instructions and training before using equipment
  • ask for help moving or lifting heavy objects
  • tell your supervisor if you think a work practice could be dangerous

If you are not sure of the safest way to do something on work experience, always ask your work experience supervisor.

3. Make the Changes

Key Point
It is your employer's responsibility to fix hazards. Sometimes you may be able to fix simple hazards yourself, as long as you don't put yourself or others at risk. For example, you can pick up things from the floor and put them away to eliminate a trip hazard.

The best way to fix a hazard is to get rid of it altogether. This is not always possible, but your employer should try to make hazards less dangerous by looking at the following options (in order from most effective to least effective):

  • Elimination - Sometimes hazards - equipment, substances or work practices - can be avoided entirely. (e.g. Clean high windows from the ground with an extendable pole cleaner, rather than by climbing a ladder and risking a fall.)
  • Substitution - Sometimes a less hazardous thing, substance or work practice can be used. (e.g. Use a non-toxic glue instead of a toxic glue.)
  • Isolation - Separate the hazard from people, by marking the hazardous area, fitting screens or putting up safety barriers. (e.g. Welding screens can be used to isolate welding operations from other workers. Barriers and/or boundary lines can be used to separate areas where forklifts operate near pedestrians in the workplace.)
  • Safeguards - Safeguards can be added by modifying tools or equipment, or fitting guards to machinery. These must never be removed or disabled by workers using the equipment.
  • Instructing workers in the safest way to do something - This means developing and enforcing safe work procedures. Students on work experience must be given information and instruction and must follow agreed procedures to ensure their safety.
  • Using personal protective equipment and clothing (PPE) - If risks remain after the options have been tried, it may be necessary to use equipment such as safety glasses, gloves, helmets and ear muffs. PPE can protect you from hazards associated with jobs such as handling chemicals or working in a noisy environment.

Sometimes, it will require more than one of the risk control measures above to effectively reduce exposure to hazards.

Ku Ahmad Mudrikah Ku Mukhtar , Mohammad Hafizh Asyraf Ismail , Ahmad Farhan Ahmad Fuad, Afif Asyraf, Zaki Zakwan

First aid is a vital aspect in every household. It means the initial or the first action to be done in case of an emergency . In other words, it is the administration of emergency assistance to individuals who have been injured or otherwise disabled, prior to the arrival of a physician or transportation to a hospital. It may improve the situation or perhaps solving the problem all together. But, first aid should never be the substitution for definitive medical care.

The kit should contain the following items

  • Sterilized cotton gauze swab.
  • Sterilized gauze and cotton wool pad.
  • Assorted adhesive plasters.
  • Elastic bandages.
  • Triangular bandage.
  • Clinical thermometer.
  • Scissors.
  • Pointed tweezers.
  • Safety pins or clips.
  • External medication – anti-itch cream, antiseptic lotion, etc.
  • Internal medication – antacid, pain reliever, fever reliever, etc.

The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 require you to provide adequate and appropriate first-aid equipment, facilities and people so your employees can be given immediate help if they are injured or taken ill at work.

What is ‘adequate and appropriate’ will depend on the circumstances in your workplace and you should assess what your first-aid needs are.

The minimum first-aid provision on any work site is:

■ a suitably stocked first-aid box.

■ an appointed person to take charge of first-aid arrangements.

■ information for employees about first-aid arrangements.

It is important to remember that accidents and illness can happen at any time. First-aid provision needs to be available at all times people are at work.

First- Aider

A first-aider is someone who has undertaken training and has a qualification that HSE approves. This means that they must hold a valid certificate of competence in either:

■ first aid at work (FAW), issued by a training organisation approved by HSE; or

■ emergency first aid at work (EFAW), issued by a training organisation approved by HSE or a recognised Awarding Body of Ofqual/Scottish Qualifications Authority.

You can obtain lists of suitable training providers and Awarding Bodies from HSE’s Infoline.

Use the findings of your first-aid needs assessment to decide whether first-aiders should be trained in FAW or EFAW. EFAW training enables a first-aider to give emergency first aid to someone who is injured or becomes ill while at work. FAW training includes EFAW and also equips the first-aider to apply first aid to a range of specific injuries and illness. As a guide, Table 2 suggests the first-aid personnel to provide under different circumstances.

To help keep their basic skills up to date, it is strongly recommended that your firstaiders undertake annual refresher training. The training organisations referred to above can run these courses.





by maallini doraisingam


First aid


First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

First aid kits

· sharp scissors

· safety pins

· first aid manual

· antiseptic wipes

· alcohol wipes

· thermometer

· tweezers

· calamine lotion

· plastic non-latex gloves (at least 2 pairs)

After you have done keeping it….NEXT is??

· Read the entire first-aid manual so you'll understand how to use the contents of your kits. (If your kids are old enough to understand, review the manuals with them.)

· Store first-aid kits in places that are out of children's reach but easily accessible for adults.

· Check the kits regularly. Replace missing items or medicines that may have expired.

· Check the flashlight batteries to make sure they work.