First aid is a vital aspect in every household. It means the initial or the first

action to be done in case of an emergency . In other words, it is the

administration of emergency assistance to individuals who have been injured

or otherwise disabled, prior to the arrival of a physician or transportation to a

hospital. It may improve the situation or perhaps solving the problem all

together. But, first aid should never be the substitution for definitive medical


The kit should contain the following items

!"Sterilized cotton gauze swab.

!"Sterilized gauze and cotton wool pad.

!"Assorted adhesive plasters.

!"Elastic bandages.

!"Triangular bandage.

!"Clinical thermometer.


!"Pointed tweezers.

!"Safety pins or clips.

!"External medication – anti-itch cream, antiseptic lotion, etc.

!"Internal medication – antacid, pain reliever, fever reliever, etc.

The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 require you to provide adequate and appropriate first-aid equipment, facilities and people so your employees can be given immediate help if they are injured or taken ill at work.

What is ‘adequate and appropriate’ will depend on the circumstances in your workplace and you should assess what your first-aid needs are (see Q3).

The minimum first-aid provision on any work site is:

■ a suitably stocked first-aid box (see Q4);

■ an appointed person to take charge of first-aid arrangements (see Q5);

■ information for employees about first-aid arrangements (see Q8).

It is important to remember that accidents and illness can happen at any time. First-aid provision needs to be available at all times people are at work.

First- Aider

A first-aider is someone who has undertaken training and has a qualification that HSE approves. This means that they must hold a valid certificate of competence in either:

■ first aid at work (FAW), issued by a training organisation approved by HSE; or

■ emergency first aid at work (EFAW), issued by a training organisation approved by HSE or a recognised Awarding Body of Ofqual/Scottish Qualifications Authority.

You can obtain lists of suitable training providers and Awarding Bodies from HSE’s Infoline (see Q9 for contact details).

Use the findings of your first-aid needs assessment (see Q3) to decide whether first-aiders should be trained in FAW or EFAW. EFAW training enables a first-aider to give emergency first aid to someone who is injured or becomes ill while at work. FAW training includes EFAW and also equips the first-aider to apply first aid to a range of specific injuries and illness. As a guide, Table 2 suggests the first-aid personnel to provide under different circumstances.

To help keep their basic skills up to date, it is strongly recommended that your firstaiders undertake annual refresher training. The training organisations referred to above can run these courses.









Term And Definitions

Hazard means a source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury

or ill health, damage to property, damage to the environment or a combination of these.

Hazard control means the process of implementing measures to reduce the risk associated

with a hazard.

Hierarchy of control means the established priority order for the types of measures to be

used to control risks.

Hazard identification means the identification of undesired events that lead to the

materialisation of the hazard and the mechanism by which those undesired events could


Risk means a combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event with

specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to

the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the


Risk assessment means the process of evaluating the risks to safety and health arising

from hazards at work.

Risk management means the total procedure associated with identifying a hazard,

assessing the risk, putting in place control measures, and reviewing the outcomes.

Purpose of HIRARC

The purpose of HIRARC are as follows:-

a. to identify all the factors that may cause harm to employees and others (the


b. to consider what the chances are of that harm actually be falling anyone in the

circumstances of a particular case and the possible severity that could come from

it (the risks); and

c. to enable employers to plan, introduce and monitor preventive measures to ensure

that the risks are adequately controlled at all times.

Planning of HIRARC Activities

H IRARC activities shall be plan and conducted –

a. for situation –

i. where hazard appear to pose significant threat;

ii. uncertain whether existing controls are adequate; or/and

iii. before implementing corrective or preventive measures.

b. by organization intending to continuously improve OSH Management System.

It should be the duty of the employer to assign a trained personnel to lead a team of

employees associated with one particular process or activity to conduct HIRARC.

Process of HIRARC

Process of HIRARC requires 4 simple steps -

a. classify work activities;

b. identify hazard;

c. conduct risk assessment (analyze and estimate risk from each hazard), by

calculating or estimating -

i. likelihood of occurrence, and

ii. severity of hazard;

d. decide if risk is tolerable and apply control measures (if necessary).


First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

The key objectives of first aid are the following:

1. To preserve life.

2. To alleviate suffering.

3. To promote recovery.

4. To prevent aggravation of the injury or illness until veterinary assistance can be obtained.

·         Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly the "ABC"s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries.
·         ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals. Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency.
·         Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary.
Assessment of circulation is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse checks may be done on less serious patients.

In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.


It is essential to know the normal temperature, pulse, and breathing rate of your cat to accurately judge the severity of illness or injury. Cats vary, as people do, but these are general guidelines:

Temperature    100.4'F-102.5'F

Pulse                 160-240 per minute

Respirations     20-30 per minute



Gauze bandages, 1" and 2" rolls (I each)
Gauze dressing pads, 3" X 3" (8)
Adhesive tape, I" roll (1)
Roll of cotton wool (I)
Triangular bandage (1)
Rectal thermometer (1)
Cotton bails (6)
Tweezers (I)

Specific disciplines
There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.
  • Aquatic/Marine first aid—Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards, professional mariners or in diver rescue, and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue and/or delayed MedEvac.
  • Battlefield first aid—This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict.
  • Hyperbaric first aid—Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends.
  • Oxygen first aid—Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia.
  • Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.
  • Hydrofluoric Acid first aid—taught to first aiders in the chemical industry where hydrofluoric acid may be used. Instructs the first aider how to initially treat (with calcium gluconate) any skin that has been splashed with the acid.

                             NURUL SYIFA’ BINTI ADNAN(F1121)
                             NUR SYUHADA BINTI YAACOB(F1123)
                             SITI NOR SYAKIRAH BINTI MOHD SAID(F1110)
                                       NUR FATIN SYAZWANI BT RAMLEE(F1115)


First Aid

By Ku Ahmad Mudrikah Ku Mukhtar, Hafizh Asyraf Ismail, Ahmad Farhan Ahmad Fuad, Afif Asyraf, Zaki Zakwan

First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

While first aid can also be performed on all animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients.


The instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries.[1] The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the High Middle Ages, and organized societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field".[1] This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organization joined them with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of "first treatment" and "national aid"[1] in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St. John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways.[2]

Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of theAmerican Civil War, which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross.[3] Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military and the Scouting movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make today’s first aid simple and effective.


The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points:[4]

§ Preserve life: the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives

§ Prevent further harm: also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.

§ Promote recovery: first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound

First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phases.





Pengertian Pertolongan Cemas
Pertolongan atau bantuan segera yang bersifat sementara diberikan kepada mangsa yang mengalami kemalangan atau kecederaan dengan segala kemudahan yang terdapat di tempat kejadian sebelum ketibaan bantuan perubatan atau sebelum mangsa mendapat rawatan perubatan yang sempurna.

Tujuan-tujuan Pertolongan Cemas
Ø    Membantu menyelamatkan nyawa mangsa.
Ø    Mengelakkan mangsa dari kecederaan yang lebih teruk
Ø  Membantu mengurangkan kesakitan atau kesengsaraan mangsa.

Pengendalian Mangsa Kemalangan
Ø    Memberi bantuan dengan tenang dan pantas. Jangan panik semasa menghadapi keadaan.
Ø    Beri semangat kepada mangsa agar berada dalam keadaan tenang.
Ø    Uruskan bantuan supaya mangsa mendapat bantuan perubatan dengan segera.
Ø    Lapor kejadian kepada pihak polis jika perlu
Sifat-sifat Pemberi Pertolongan Cemas Yang Baik
Ø    Mempunyai kepercayaan kepada diri sendiri di dalam mengendalikan kes-kes kecemasan.
Ø    Pantas ikhtiar menggunakan segala kemudahan yang terdapat di tempat kejadian atau sekelilingnya.
Ø    Tajam perhatian di dalam mengenali tanda-tanda dan gejala sesuatu kes.
Ø    Mempunyai sifat bertimbang rasa kepada mangsa.
Ø    Tidak mempunyai sikap memilih bangsa atau keturunan semasa memberi keutamaan rawatan mangsa.
Ø    Bersifat lemah lembut semasa memberi bantuan agar dapat mengurangkan kesakitan si mangsa.

Tugas-tugas Ahli Pertolongan Cemas
Ø    Menyelamatkan mangsa secara permulihan pernafasan CPR jika pernafasan mangsa terhenti, menahan pendarahan dan mengelakkan mangsa dari terjadi renjatan.
Ø    Membalut luka dengan kain yang bersih supaya dapat mengelakkan dari jangkitan kuman.
Ø    Memberi sokongan di bahagian yang cedera terutamanya patah dengan tuap atau anduh supaya bahagian yang cedera berkeadaan tetap dan tidak bergerak.
Ø     Elak mangsa dari mengalami renjatan.
Ø    Beri semangat kepada mangsa agar sentiasa berada dalam keadaan tenang.

Peraturan-peraturan Semasa Memberi Bantuan
a) Membuat penilaian keadaan
ü    Menentukan keselamatan diri dan mangsa dalam keadaan selamat.
ü    Kemudahan-kemudahan yang terdapat seperti telefon bagi kemudahan mendapatkan bantuan.
ü    Dapat menilai keterukan/keparahan mangsa
b) Membuat diagnosa
ü  mendapatkan sejarah kejadian, tanda-tanda gejala, keadaan sekeliling yang boleh dijadikan bukti serta menjalankan pemeriksaan ke atas kecederaan mangsa.
c) Memberi rawatan sementara
ü  menjalankan rawatan mengikut prinsip dan memberi keutamaan kepada mangsa yang teruk.
d) Membuat dan memberi laporan
ü  mengikut sejarah, kecederaan, pernafasan, nadi, kesedaran dan rawatan yang telah dilakukan ke atas mangsa.

Peringatan !!!
Ø  Elakkan dari melakukan bantuan yang berlebihan dari yang sepatutnya supaya dapat mengelakkan mangsa menjadi lebih teruk.
Ø  Jangan tanggalkan pakaian mangsa terutama mangsa yang tidak sedarkan diri. Lakukan dengan hanya melonggarkan sahaja mana-mana bahagian yang ketat.
Ø  Cuba dapatkan bantuan perubatan seberapa segera.
Ø  Lakukan bantuan berdasarkan landas-landas selamatkan nyawa, pendarahan dan kecederaan patah.
Ø   Beri kerjasama kepada pihak polis atau perubatan jika bantuan diperlukan.

Resusitasi Kardio Pulmonari (CPR)
Resusitasi Kardio Pulmonari adalah kaedah pemulihan gabungan permulihan pernafasan dengan permulihan pergerakan jantung yang terhenti. Di dalam kaedah ini permulihan pernafasan yang dilakukan adalah secara mulut ke mulut, mulut ke hidung atau mulut ke lubang pernafasan di tengkuk. Manakala permulihan pergerakan jantung adalah secara mengenakan tekanan (kompresi) di bahagian tertentu dada.
Resusitasi Kardio Pulmonary perlu dilakukan dengan segera dan tepat apabila terjadinya kejadian pernafasan dan pergerakan jantung terhenti kepada mangsa.
Ini disebabkan faktor-faktor berikut:
Ø    Bantuan diberi antara 0 hingga 5 minit selepas kejadian, peluang memulihkan mangsa adalah pada kadar 12%.
Ø    Bantuan selepas 5 hingga 10 minit kejadian, peluang mangsa pulih adalah pada kadar 2% sahaja.
Ø    Selepas 10 minit kejadian, tiada sebarang peluang memulihkan mangsa

Terdapat peringkat-peringkat tertentu yang perlu diikuti dalam resusitasi Kardio Pulmonary. Antaranya ialah:
a. Saluran pernafasan (airway)
b. Pernafasan (breathing)
c. Edaran darah (circulation)

a)Saluran pernafasan.
Ø    Pastikan mangsa betul-betul dalam keadaan tidak sedarkan diri dengan teknik menggoncangkan kedua-dua bahu mangsa sambil memanggil beliau.
Ø    Setelah pasti mangsa pengsan, donggakkan kepala mangsa dan bahagian dagu mangsa (head tilt and chin lift). Bagi menetukan saluran pernafasan mangsa terbuka. Ini penting kerana semasa mangsa pengsan, otot-otot lidah dan epiglotis menjadi lemah dan menyempitkan saluran pernafasan mangsa.
b) Pernafasan
Ø    Pastikan mangsa bernafas atau tidak dengan teknik lihat, dengar dan rasa secara mendekatkan telinga dan pipi penolong ke bahagian hidung mangsa sambil mata memerhatikan pergerakan dada mangsa.
Ø    Beri bantuan pernafasan secara kaedah teknik mulut ke mulut, mulut ke hidung atau mulu ke lubang di tengkuk mengikut keadaan mangsa.

c) Edaran darah
Ø    Periksa pergerakan nadi dengan cara merasa nadi di leher (nadi karotik) atau lengan (nadi brachial) bagi bayi.
Ø    Lakukan tekanan di bahagian luar dada (chest comression) setelah dipastikan pergerakan nadi terhenti.
PETI PERTOLONGAN CEMAS/FIRST AID                                         KIT                
satu peti/kotak yang mengandungi peralatan pertolongan cemas dan bekalan perubatan.

Kepentingan Peti pertolongan Cemas
1.Menyimpan item/ubatan untuk melakukan pertolongan cemas bagi:
ü  menyelamatkan nyawa
ü  Menghenti dan menghalang kecederaan menjadi lebih teruk
ü  menggalakkan penyembuhan
2.Memenuhi keperluan Perundangan
ü  Factories and Machinery Act 1967
§       section 25(parent Act)
§       regulation 38 (health,safety and welfare)
ü  OSH act 1994
§    section 15(parent Act)

Senarai lengkap alatan dalam peti kecemasan

Ø plaster - berbagai saiz dan bentuk
Ø dreassing sterill - berbagai siaz
Ø kapas
Ø kasa sterill serta swab kasa
Ø dressing khas untuk kes terbakar
Ø bandage 3 segi
Ø bandage crepe penggulung
Ø pita lekat
Ø pad mata
Ø  thermometer
Ø gunting hujung tumpul
Ø penyepit
Ø pin penyelamat
Ø kertas tisu
Ø losyen antiseptik
Ø beberapa jenis ubat seperti panadol, pil-pil rawatan