First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

The key objectives of first aid are the following:

1. To preserve life.

2. To alleviate suffering.

3. To promote recovery.

4. To prevent aggravation of the injury or illness until veterinary assistance can be obtained.

·         Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly the "ABC"s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries.
·         ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals. Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency.
·         Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary.
Assessment of circulation is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse checks may be done on less serious patients.

In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.


It is essential to know the normal temperature, pulse, and breathing rate of your cat to accurately judge the severity of illness or injury. Cats vary, as people do, but these are general guidelines:

Temperature    100.4'F-102.5'F

Pulse                 160-240 per minute

Respirations     20-30 per minute



Gauze bandages, 1" and 2" rolls (I each)
Gauze dressing pads, 3" X 3" (8)
Adhesive tape, I" roll (1)
Roll of cotton wool (I)
Triangular bandage (1)
Rectal thermometer (1)
Cotton bails (6)
Tweezers (I)

Specific disciplines
There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.
  • Aquatic/Marine first aid—Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards, professional mariners or in diver rescue, and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue and/or delayed MedEvac.
  • Battlefield first aid—This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict.
  • Hyperbaric first aid—Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends.
  • Oxygen first aid—Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia.
  • Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.
  • Hydrofluoric Acid first aid—taught to first aiders in the chemical industry where hydrofluoric acid may be used. Instructs the first aider how to initially treat (with calcium gluconate) any skin that has been splashed with the acid.

                             NURUL SYIFA’ BINTI ADNAN(F1121)
                             NUR SYUHADA BINTI YAACOB(F1123)
                             SITI NOR SYAKIRAH BINTI MOHD SAID(F1110)
                                       NUR FATIN SYAZWANI BT RAMLEE(F1115)

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